The Beach of Les Andalouses, west of Oran (above). The landings here were unopposed. Eastern part of Oran harbor (below). Early on Nov 8, two British ships (ex-US Coast Guard cutters), carrying about 400 US soldiers, entered the port between the moles shown in the distance. The ships came under point-blank fire from French naval vessels in the harbor and from shore batteries. They returned the fire but were sunk with great loss of life. When resistance in Oran ceased at noon on Nov 10, the port was cluttered with ships either sunk by British naval gunfire or sabotaged. Port installations had received only minor damage and were quickly put to use

Supplies on the Beach of Les Andalouses on D Day. Most of the Allied supply problems, both on the Atlantic side and in the Mediterranean, were caused by destruction of landing craft. About 95 percent were used during initial landings leaving few reserves for the build-up. The large seaworthy LST’s (Landing Ship Tank), which were to play a decisive role in all subsequent landings, were introduced by the British in the Oran area to carry light American tanks for beach landings

Unloading Supplies and laying prefabricated track on the beach in the Golfe d’Arzeu east of Oran (above). Guarding French and French colonial prisoners captured in the same vicinity (below). The plan for the capture of Oran and near-by airfields consisted of the frontal attack on the port itself and landings on both sides of the city at Mersat bou Zedjar and Les Andalouses west of Oran, and in the Golfe d’Arzeu east of Oran. Of the beach landings, those at Arzeu were much the largest and were made with little resistance. By the afternoon of D Day all opposition in the neighborhood had ceased. (above: 3 LCM (3)’s on the beach; at center, offshore, is an LCM (1))

(Above and Below) Captured Train at Saint-Leu on the Golfe d’Arzeu. The railroad from Casablanca to Tunis figured prominently in the planning of the African invasion. If the forces on the Mediterranean coast were to be cut off by sea, supplies could be carried by railroad from Casablanca. During the fighting in Tunisia and the build-up in Africa for the invasion of Europe, this railroad played an important part. After its capture it was repaired and improved. Locomotives and rolling stock were obtained from the United States to speed delivery of supplies

Troops Loading into Assault Craft from transport prior to landing near Algiers. With minor exceptions, the landing craft were manned by Royal Navy personnel. Landings took place on beaches on both sides of the city as well as in the port itself. Although beach landings were not heavily opposed, one of the two British destroyer-transports making a frontal attack on the port had three boilers damaged by fire from shore but discharged her load of US troops on a dock at 0520, D Day. Some troops were surrounded and taken to a French military prison, others regained the ship before she was eventually driven off. The hostilities here ceased the same day and the soldiers were set free by the French. (On davits, center of photograph: LCP(R))

Algiers, the Most Important Object of the North African invasion. The ultimate goals for the operation were Bizerte and Tunis, but because of the land-based enemy aircraft in Sardinia, Sicily, and southern Italy, it was decided to land no troops farther east than Algiers until airports had been captured. British-American elements at Algiers reembarked for a movement eastward to Bougie where they landed on Nov 11. Bône was captured the following day by British paratroopers dropped from C–47’s and by seaborne forces from Bougie. From there the advance toward Tunis started. Allied columns reached Djedeida, twelve miles from Tunis, on Nov 29, 1942, but rapid enemy build-up forced the Allies to abandon it on Dec 13

Antiaircraft Defense over Algiers at Night. The city suffered practically no damage during the invasion. On the first evening of its surrender it was bombed by enemy planes. This attack was followed by many others, mostly aimed at the concentration of shipping in the harbor. Damage was surprisingly small. Algiers became Allied Force Headquarters (AFHQ).

French Prisoners of War Captured During the Invasion. The prisoners were released shortly after the end of hostilities, Nov 11, and from then on fought on the side of the Allies. On Nov 15, orders were issued for the movement of French troops, then at Algiers and Constantine, to protect the southern flank of the American and British units advancing into Tunisia along the northern coast The French were reinforced by US troops, including tank destroyer units, and one of their assigned missions was the protection of advanced airfields in the Tébessa–Gafsa area.

Aviation Engineers at Youks-Les-Bains lining up for mess. This Algerian airfield near Tébessa and the Tunisian border was occupied by US paratroopers on Nov 15, 1942. It became operational for P–38 fighter planes (Lockheed Lightnings) shortly afterward. During the first few weeks there were no provisions for landing after dark and on Nov 21, six P–38’s crashed while trying to land in the evening. It was not an improved field and there was no effective air-raid system. The first warning of enemy aircraft was frequently the strafing or bombing itself. When the rains started, operations were drastically reduced by mud.

US Tankers Heating Their C Rations, Spam and beans, over an improvised stove at Souk el Arba, Tunisia. The Souk el Arba area was taken by British paratroopers on Nov 16. When the attempt to advance to Tunis was officially abandoned on Dec 24, both sides started a race to build up strength for the battle to come. The US troops were at first committed piecemeal in different sectors of the line as they arrived from Algeria. Much of the Allied armor was obsolete and none of it was on a par with the best German equipment. (General Grant Tank M-3.)

German MK-VI-1 Tiger Tank. This heavy tank was encountered early in the campaign. The German High Command was particularly concerned with the performance of the Tiger in the defense of Tunis. Its high-velocity 88-MM gun, equipped with a muzzle-brake, could knock out Allied tanks before the latter could get within effective range; and within range, Allied tank guns could not penetrate its frontal armor. The Tiger sacrificed mobility for armor and fire power. To avoid weak bridges, it was equipped with telescopic air intake, exhaust extensions, and over-all sealing that enabled it to cross rivers fifteen feet deep, completely submerged on the bottom. The gun has a traverse of 360 degrees. Top picture is rear view of tank; bottom is front view. (Tiger, Pz., Kpfw., gun 8.8-cm., Kw. K. 36.)

(Above and Below) German Stuka Dive Bombers. These aircraft co-operated closely with ground forces, bombing and strafing ahead of their own advancing columns in addition to roaming behind the lines disrupting traffic and creating confusion. The bombers could operate successfully only where they had air superiority. In the later stages of the Tunisia Campaign, as the Allies gained air superiority, their effectiveness dwindled. The Germans turned a number of these planes over to the Italians. (Dive bomber, German Stuka JU–87.)

(Above and Below) German Figther Planes. The primary mission of these planes was to intercept and destroy bombers but they were also used for strafing and fighter bombing. The enemy used these types until the end of the war. (Top, German Focke-Wulf 190; bottom, German Messerschmitt 109)

Camouflaging Medium Bomber at Youks-les-Bains airfield. Camouflaging for hiding purposes in olive groves or on rough terrain was relatively successful; however, camouflaging an aircraft on a flat, featureless landing field for hiding purposes was not practical. Camouflaging was often practiced to the extent of deceiving the enemy about the type or serviceability of planes. Note that the bomber above is minus both of its engines. (Martin B–26 Marauder.)

Removing Film From Figther Plane after a reconnaissance flight. This long-range plane was adapted for photographic work by removing the armament and installing camera equipment instead. (P–38 Lightning)

Light Bomber Douglas A-20. This was a fast, versatile, and heavily armed plane used for both bombing and strafing in Tunisia. The American version was usually called the Havoc and the British version, the Boston

Heavy Bomber, Flying Fortress. This and the B–24 were the two heavy US four-engined bombers used in the Mediterranean area. (Boeing B–17)

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