Josef Klein

George Gottlob SchuhGeorge Gottlob Schuh

George Gottlob Schuh, a native of Germany, came to the United States in 1923. He became a citizen in 1939 and was employed as a carpenter. As a German agent, he sent information directly to the Gestapo in Hamburg, Germany, from this country. Schuh had provided Alfred Brokhoff information that Winston Churchill had arrived in the United States on the HMS George V. He also furnished information to Germany concerning the movement of ships carrying materials and supplies to Britain. Having pleaded guilty to violation of the Registration Act, Schuh received a sentence of 18 months in prison and a $1000 fine.

Erwin Wilhelm SieglerErwin Wilhelm Siegler

Erwin Siegler came to the United States from Germany in 1929 and attained citizenship in 1936. He had served as a chief butcher on the SS America until it was taken over by the United States Navy. A courier Siegler brought micro-photographic instructions to Sebold from German authorities on one occasion. He also had brought $2900 from German contacts abroad to pay Lilly Stein, Duquesne, and Roeder for their services and to buy a bombsight. He served the espionage group as an organizer and contact man, and he also obtained information about the movement of ships and military defense preparations at the Panama Canal. Subsequent to his conviction, Siegler was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment (espionage) and a concurrent 2-year term for violation of the Registration Act.

Oscar Richard StablerOscar Richard Stabler

Born in Germany, Oscar Stabler came to this country in 1923 and became a citizen in 1933. He had been employed primarily as a barber aboard transoceanic ships. In December 1940, British authorities in Bermuda found a map of Gibraltar in his possession. He was detained for a short period before being released. A close associate of Conradin Otto Dold, Stabler served as a courier, transmitting information between German agents in the United States and contacts abroad. Stabler was convicted and sentenced to serve five years in prison for espionage and a two-year concurrent term under the Registration Act.

Heinrich StadeHeinrich Stade

Heinrich Stade came to the United States from Germany in 1922. He became a United States citizen seven years later, in 1929. Stade had arranged for Paul Bante’s contact with Sebold and had transmitted data to Germany regarding points of rendezvous for convoys carrying supplies to England. Following a guilty plea to a violation of the Registration Act, Stade was fined $1000 and received a 15-month prison sentence.

Nazi in the USA - An audience gives the Hitler salute at the Bund headquarters in Kenosha, Wisconsin, in 1937

Lilly Barbara Carola SteinLilly Barbara Carola Stein

Born in Vienna, Austria, Lilly Stein, met Hugo Sebold, the espionage instructor who had trained William Sebold (the two men were not related) in Hamburg, Germany. She enrolled in this school and was sent to the United States in 1939. Lilly Stein was one of the people to whom Sebold had been instructed to deliver microphotograph instructions upon his arrival in this country. She frequently met with Sebold to give him information for transmittal to Germany, and her address was used as a return address by other agents in mailing data for Germany. Miss Stein pleaded guilty and received sentences of 10 years and 2 concurrent years’ imprisonment for violations of espionage and registration statutes, respectively.

Franz Joseph StiglerFranz Joseph Stigler

In 1934, Franz Stigler left Germany for the United States, where he became a citizen in 1939. He had been employed as a crew member aboard United States ships until his discharge from the SS America when the United States Navy converted that ship into the USS West Point. His constant companion was Erwin Siegler, and they operated as couriers in transmitting information between the United States and German agents abroad. Stigler sought to recruit amateur radio operators in the United States as channels of communication to German radio stations. He had also observed and reported defense preparations in the Canal Zone and had met with other German agents to advise them in their espionage pursuits. Upon conviction, Stigler was sentenced to serve 16 years in prison on espionage charges with 2 concurrent years for registration violations.

American Bund Camp: Nazi Youth Salute Hindenburg 1934, Griggstown, New Jersey

Erich StrunckErich Strunck

A seaman aboard ships of the United States Lines since his arrival in this country, Erich Strunck came to the United States from Germany in 1927. He became a naturalized citizen in 1935. As a courier, Strunck carried messages between German agents in the United States and Europe. He requested authority to steal the diplomatic bag of a British officer traveling aboard his ship and to dispose of the officer by pushing him overboard. Sebold convinced him that it would be too risky to do so. Strunck was convicted and sentenced to serve 10 years on espionage charges. He also was sentenced to serve a two-year concurrent term under the Registration Act.

Leo WaalenLeo Waalen

Waalen was born in Danzig while that city was under German domination. He entered the United States by jumping ship in about 1935. He was a painter for a small boat company that was constructing small craft for the United States Navy, Waalen gathered information about ships sailing for England. He also obtained a confidential booklet issued by the FBI which contained precautions to be taken by industrial plants to safeguard national defense materials from sabotage. Waalen also secured Government contracts listing specifications for materials and equipment, as well as detailed sea charts of the United States Atlantic coastline. Following his conviction, Waalen was sentenced to 12 years in prison for espionage and a concurrent 2-year term under the Registration Act.

Henry August WalischewskiHenry August Walischewski

A German native, Walischewski had been a seaman since maturity. He became a naturalized citizen in 1935. Walischewski became connected with the German espionage system through Paul Fehse. His duties were confined to those of couriers, carrying data from agents in the United States to contacts abroad. Upon conviction, Walischewski received a five-year prison sentence on espionage charges, as well as a two-year concurrent sentence under the Registration Act.

With a pair of Bund storm troopers beside her, columnist Dorothy Thompson is pictured still seated, just before being escorted out after laughing and heckling a Nazi speaker. Police later allowed her to return

Else WeustenfeldElse Weustenfeld

Else Weustenfeld arrived in the United States from Germany in 1927 and became a citizen 10 years later. From 1935 until her arrest, she was a secretary for a law firm representing the German Consulate in New York City. Weustenfeld was thoroughly acquainted with the German espionage system and delivered funds to Duquesne which she had received from Lilly Stein, her close friend. She lived in New York City with Hans W. Hitter, a principal in the German espionage system. His brother, Nickolaus Ritter, was Dr. Renken who had enlisted Sebolt as a German agent. In the 1940s Weustenfeld visited Hans Ritter in Mexico, where he was serving as a paymaster for the German Intelligence Service. After pleading guilty, Else Weustenfeld was sentenced to five years imprisonment on the charge of espionage and two concurrent years on the charge of registration violations.

Axel Wheeler-HillAxel Wheeler-Hill

Axel Wheeler-Hill came to the United States in 1923 from his native land of Russia. He was naturalized as a citizen in 1929 and was employed as a truck driver. Wheeler-Hill obtained information for Germany regarding ships sailing to Britain from New York Harbor. With Felix Jahnke, he enlisted the aid of Paul Scholz in building a radio set for sending coded messages to Germany. Following conviction, Wheeler Hill was sentenced to serve 15 years in prison for espionage and 2 concurrent years under the Registration Act.

Bertram Wolfgang ZenzingerBertram Wolfgang Zenzinger

Born la Germany, Zenzinger came to the United States in 1910 as a naturalized citizen of the Union of South Africa. His reported reason for coming to this country was to study mechanical dentistry in Los Angeles, California. In July 1940, Zenzinger received a pencil for preparing invisible messages for Germany in the mail from Siegler. He sent several letters to Germany through a mail drop in Sweden outlining details of national defense materials. Zenzinger was arrested by FBI Agents on April 16, 1941. Pleading guilty, he received 18 months in prison for violation of the Registration Act and 8 years imprisonment for espionage.

German American Bund parade in New York City on East 86th St. Oct. 30, 1939

Liaisons to the Duquesne Spy Ring

Lieut Commander Takeo Ezima of the Imperial Japanese Navy operated in New York as an engineer inspector using the name: E. Satoz; code name: KATO. He arrived on the Heian Maur in Seattle in 1938. On October 19, 1940, Sebold received a radio message from Germany that CARR (Abwehr Agent Roeder) was to meet E. Satoz at a Japanese Club in New York. Ezima was filmed by the FBI while meeting with agent Sebold in New York, conclusive evidence of German-Japanese cooperation in espionage, in addition to meeting with Kanegoro Koike, Paymaster Commander of the Japanese Imperial Navy assigned to the Office of the Japanese Naval Inspector in New York. Ezima obtained a number of military materials from Duquesne, including ammunition, a drawing of a hydraulic unit with pressure switch A-5 of the Sperry Gyroscope, and an original drawing from the Lawrence Engineering and Research Corporation of a soundproofing installation, and he agreed to deliver materials to Germany via Japan. The British had made the Abwehr courier route from New York through Lisbon, Portugal difficult, so Ezima arranged an alternate route to the West Coast with deliveries every two weeks on freighters destined for Japan. As the FBI arrested Duquesne and his agents in New York in 1941, Ezima escaped to the West Coast, boarded the Japanese freighter Kamakura Maru, and left for Tokyo. One historian states that Ezima was arrested for espionage in 1942 and sentenced to 15 years; however, US Naval Intelligence documents state that ‘at the request of the State Department, Ezima was not prosecuted’.

Oberstleutnant (Lt Col) Nikolaus Ritter led spy rings in the United States, Great Britain, and North Africa from 1936 to 1941. Ritter was born in Germany and had served as an officer in WW-1 on the Western Front in France where he was twice wounded. He emigrated to New York in 1924, married an American, and returned to Germany in 1936 to join the Abwehr as Chief of Air Intelligence based in Hamburg operating under the code name: Dr. Rantzau.

He first met Fritz Duquesne in 1931, and the two spies reconnected in New York on December 3, 1937. Ritter also met Herman Lang while in New York, and he arranged for Lang to later go to Germany to help the Nazis finish their version of the top-secret Norden bombsight. Ritter achieved several major successes with the Abwehr, most notably the Norden bombsight, an advanced aircraft auto-pilot from the Sperry Gyroscope Company, and intelligence operations in North Africa in support of FM Erwin Rommel. But some of Ritter’s recruits became double agents who catastrophically exposed his spy rings.

Ritter recruited William Sebold who later joined the FBI which resulted in the arrest of the 33 Abwehr agents of the Duquesne Spy Ring. In Great Britain, he recruited Arthur Owens, codename Johnny, who became an agent for MI5 (British Intelligence) operating under the codename Snow. Owens exposed so many Abwehr covert agents operating in Britain that by the end of the war MI5 had enlisted some 120 double agents. Although Ritter was never captured, it was the arrest of the Duquesne Spy Ring that ultimately resulted in Ritter’s fall from the Abwehr and his reassignment in 1942 to air defenses in Germany for the remainder of the Second World War.

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