Special Operations Executive (SOE) Codes
Operations in Europe

A particularly rare thing in this world often reserved for men is the fact of being able to put women in the honor. And God knows if they deserve it because they took an active part in the fighting during the Second World War and often paid with their life their activities in Intelligence, Spying, and even killing valuable enemy targets. Special Operations Executive Summary of Operations in Western Europe. This summary refers only to those operations with the fullest material in the files. For reasons of space, it does not refer to every operation mentioned in the records. Similarly, the newly released records do not contain evidence on every operation which was mounted by the sections.

(Abbreviations) AU (Austria); BE (Belgium); DE (Germany; FR (France); FN (Field Name); IT (Italy); NL (Holland); PT (Portugal); SP (Spain;

A(e)neas, BE, May-Jun 1944, FN Nicole Graumont.
Arboretum, BE, 1944: agents executed.
Aemilius, BE, Aug 3, 1944: FN Lucie Rochefort (Marche-en-Famenne).
Agamemnon, BE, Jan-Feb 1944: FN Suzanne Tournai liaison with Cufflinks mission.
Agrippa, BE, Mar 5, 1944: FN Brooch.
Aileron, IT: report available in the files of agent sent to (Siena) Mar 1944.
Alarbus, BE, Jun 3, 1944: FN Locket Ciney (Marche-en-Famenne).
Alcibiades, BE, Aug 5, 1944: FN Ida Halle (Nivelle) (instruction in sabotage).
Almouth, IT, Feb 1944: plans for blowing up of railway bridge over the Taro River.
Aloes, FR, 1944: code name for resistance headquarters (Brittany).
Alsation, BE, 21/22 Apr 1943: Briquet Mission members killed on impact.
Ampthill, IT, Mar 1944: rail sabotage (Pedaso).
Andromache, BE 2/3 Jun 1944: FN Valerie Graimont liaison with resistance.

Antenor, BE, 1944: FN Tiepin (Gembloux).
Apemantus, BE, Feb/Mar 1944: FN Monique (Beauraing).
Armada, FR, Nov 1943: sabotage (Le Creusot) electricity power.
Armadillo, BE, Aug 6, 1944: FN Gavotte (Ardennes).
Artichoke, NL, Jun 1942: destroy VLF stations at Kootwyk, (U-Boats, North Sea) ex-filtrated.
Association, BE, infiltration of an agent to BE via (Lisbon) paid off after attempt at usage 1941/1942.
Atlow, IT, Apr 1944: sabotage against railways in (Siena Asciano).
Aufidius, BE, Apr 1, 1944: FN Colette Ciney (Marche-en-Famenne), liaison mission with the chief of the zone IV, for the organization of the zone instruction in arms and explosives.
Autogyro, BE, 1941: few details in files mission canceled after several failures.

Baboon, BE, Nov 17, 1942: PID mission to encourage peasant resistance.
Badger, BE, Feb 1943: Liège reception committees with Secret army agent deemed irresponsible.
Balaklava, BE, Sep/Oct 1941: W/T support to Outcaste at (Neufchateau) discovered by Germans.
Balloonet, IT, 1944/1945: political-military mission east Tyrol & Violet south-west Carinthia.
Balthazer, BE, 1942/1944: FN Louise aimed at the paralysis of river traffic in the (Hainault) region later expanded to the cutting of railway routes and destruction of communications in preparation for D-Day working to Nelly.
Bandon VII, IT, 1945: continued political-military liaison mission in (Turin). Appears to have had the task of facilitating supplies by safeguarding Rivoli Airport.
Bassianus, BE, May 1944: FN Violette to work to Nelly sabotage instruction including trains derailment.
Bergenfield, IT, 1944-1945: political-military liaison mission Tabella partisans (Udine) area.
Bernardo, BE, 4/5 Jul 1944: Bruxelles région, messenger to the chief of the Secret Army FN Nina.
Bianca, BE, 28/29 Jun 1944: FN Diane sabotage instruction.
Blue-Toffee, Mission’s Name.
Blundell, IT: general name used for liaison missions with Italian partisans, north 1944-1945.
Blundell, IT 1944: political-military liaison mission to Violet Piacenza partisans working in Spezia region. The relevant files contain reports by leaders Captain T. D. Gregg and Major Lett.
Borzoi, BE, Dec 20, 1942: Bruxelles & Tournai extend Flemish clandestine press reception committees, agents escape to (Geneva) Mar 1943.
Boykin, IT: plans for the kidnap of suspected double agents who were thought to be compromising the north Italian resistance. Although successful when carried out in Feb 1945, interrogation of the agents later suggested that the suspicions were unfounded.
Brabantio, BE, Jul or Aug 1944: FN Odette principal delegate occupied territory for sabotage.
Braddock I, DE, 1944: aerial dropping incendiary devices for POWs in an uprising.
Broadbean, NL, Feb 1943: collect mail from resistance groups northern Holland and transportation.
Buckhound, BE, 1943: W/T support military zone IV (Bruxelles).
Bullfrog, BE, May 1943: contacts with Secret Army, organization of GOFER reception committees.

Caius, BE, Aug 1944: FN Stephanie, sabotage inst. to Huguette Bruxelles-Liège, captured escaped.
Calf, BE, Jan 1943: aimed at creation links Secret Army (Hainault) but possible security breach.
Calpurnia, BE Jul-Aug 1944: FN Courante W/T support to Huguette group (Hainault) region.
Calvados, DE, 1943: attempt start sabotage group Hamburg-Bremen with German deserter Kurt Koenig.
Canidus, BE, Jun 1944: W/T to Delphine mission.
Canticle, BE, Mar 1942: with Duncan, Mastiff, Incomparable courier W/T support arrested later agents reported to have been beheaded.
Caphis, BE, Jan 1944: FN Herminie probably a stage mission, captured.
Carical, BE, 1942-1944: PID mission based in Liège, Charleroi, and Bruxelles, destroy records of the Office National du Travail, undermine the use of skilled labor by the German occupiers.
Casement, A deception plan aimed at creating the belief that Germans were fleeing to Eire or Argentina to form a free German government. Suggested by the Spanish section during 1944, it did not go ahead through the lack of evidence of the Spanish escape connection considered necessary for its success.
Cato, BE, Jul 1944: FN Celeste, provide messenger link for Minister of Finance.
Cawdor, BE, Feb/Mar 1944: FN Roland accompanied by Necklace to provide a courier service.
Cayote, BE, May 1942: organization motor sabotage Bruxelles accompanied by W/T mission Duncan.
Celeste, BE, Jul 1944: carrying messages from the Belgian Minister of Finance.
Cherokee, IT, 1944/1945: political-military liaison for partisans in ANTI-SCORCH North Piedmont.
Chicken, BE, Aug 1941: FN Tante Caro, creation group for passive resistance & sabotage Anvers.
Chiron, BE, Apr 1944: FN Sash W/T mission arrested.
Cimber, BE, Aug 1944: FN Yvonne transmission of microfilmed messages.
Cisco, IT, 1945: political-military mission Modena-Reggio for creation base Northern Apennines.
Citronelle, FR, 1944: to assess Maquis Strength Ardennes région.
Civet, BE, 1942/1944: aka mission Stanley report strength Secret Armies request of Pierlot.
Claribel, BE, Mar 1941: use of Belgium by the enemy as a springboard for the invasion of Britain.
Claudius, BE, Jul 1943: contact resistance groups – FIL, MNB, Group Goffer financial support.
Clowder, AU, 1943-1945: the establishment of an advance post to make contacts in central and eastern Europe exploiting resistance movements looking especially to work in Austria and Germany.Coal/Turtle, BE, Jan 1943: abortive mission to steal German fighter aircraft in Bruxelles.
Codford, name for operations designed to prevent enemy seizing assets of neutral countries.
Colan, DE, 1945: sabotage of railway between Stuttgart and Heilbronn reports of success.
Collie, BE, Mar 1942: mission for SOE and Belgian Surété contact resistance organize reception committees exfiltration of the leader of the Légion Belge, but caused a subsequent quarrel between SOE and the Belgian government in exile over the interrogation of the leader of the Légion Belge.
Collossus, IT, Feb 1941: Landing and sabotage of bridges.
Cominus, BE, Mar/Apr 1944: FN Mitten Huy, Ardennes region.
Conjugal, BE, Sep 1941: organize sabotage and contacts, but captured.
Coolant, IT, 1944/1945: political-military liaison mission to the partisans.
Coolant Blue, Northeast of Udine.
Cordelet, BE, 1943/1944: mission to social and democratic trade unionists encourage resistance to organize a go-slow of Belgian workers in Germany.
Coriolanus, BE, Apr/May 1944: FN Handbag.
Corona, IT, 1944-1945: political-military liaison mission Piedmont.
Crowd, AU, Mar 16, 1945: investigation of general conditions of the underground socialist movement in the Sudetenland; fate unknown but thought to have been captured.
Curling, NL, 1944

Danbury, AU, Aug 13, 1945: sabotage enemy communication lines Drau Valley, based at Klagenfurt.
Daranus, BE, Apr 1944: FN Agnes, investigation of Tybalt/Claudius mission information gathering on the efficiency of various groups, re-evaluation of sabotage missions.
Defiance, SP, 1942/1943: attempt to build up traditionalist, Catalan, base in the Barcelona area.
Denver, AU, May 8, 1944: contact resistance Sudetenland, the establishment of communications.
Dicing, NL, Apr 1945: Jedburgh Team to represent special forces and act as a liaison between resistance groups and paratroops in the Assen, Meffel and Coevorden areas.
Dingo, BE, 1943/1944: PID mission stimulate slow down in production in the industrial areas of Charleroi, possible security breaches by agent.
Dolabella, BE, Jul/Aug 1944: FN Ursule work in organizing reception committees with Simone.
Donaldbain, BE, Aug 1944: FN Foxtrot W/T mission accompanying Odette mission.
Donum, IT, 1944/1945: political and military liaison mission in east Piedmont.
Dowend, DE, 1944: agent sent to create a sabotage organization in the Ruhr area and the Frankfurt area based on a nucleus of contacts with the ISK.
Draughts, NL, Jan 1945.
Draughts-Backgammon, NL, organizing mission 1944.
Dressmaker-Bezique, FR, 1943: sabotage tanneries Graulhet (Pau-Toulouse) Mazamet (Carcassone) unsuccessful.
Drybrook, AU, Aug 13, 1945: establishment of W/T links east Tyrol, miss dropped Germany, returned to UK.
Duncan, BE, Oct 1942: attempted infiltration of agent to Belgium via Portugal through staged desertion; contact eventually lost.
Duncery, AU, Apr 24, 1945: preservation of Zeltweg Aerodrome for the Allies, in the event unnecessary through work of local anti-Nazi groups.
Duval, AU, Feb 16, 1945: contact underground org. Salzburg, assist in sabotage, party captured.

Ebensburg, AU, Feb 8, 1945: org. local sabotage with Maquis, capture Bad Aussee 4 days before US arrival.
Echalotte, FR, 1944: wireless bases in Moselle and Vosges area to augment existing radio circuits and to provide information to London from the rear of the German line.
Electra, AU, Mar 23, 1945: contact the underground socialist movement Vienna.
Emelia, BE, Aug 1944: Mrs Olga Jackson, FN Babette, independent propaganda mission for undermining of morale in Bruxelles, Ghent, Liège, Antwerp, Charleroi org. of prostitution circuit aimed at German officers.
Enorbarbus, BE, 1944: FN Polka W/T support to Constantine mission.
Envelope, IT, 1945: Reggio Emilia region political and military liaison.
Eros, BE, Aug 1944: FN Reel.
Eucalyptus, FR, 1944: derived from Union liaison mission Vercors.
Euphronius, BE, May 1944: FN Arlette sabotage instruction to Nelly in field region Bierene.
Evansville, AU, Feb 7, 1945: support to the movement in Graz, arrangement for agents in Italy believed killed and underground organization crushed.

Falaise, Tangier, 1941/1942: the destruction of an enemy wireless station used for providing locations of Allied submarines in the Straits.
Ferret, BE, 1942: plan to evacuate seven agents from Belgium including Arboretum, presumed captured by Germans.
Ferret, IT, Jun 1944: land three A force agents north of Bonassola (Ligurian Coast) attempt a meeting with an existing ferret party.
Ferrula, IT, 1944/1945: Val d’Aosta political and military liaison mission.
Flaminus, BE, Oct 1943: FN Jacqueline, arrested mid-1944.
Flap/Fin, IT, 1945: political-military liaison mission to southern Piedmont dispatched Aug 1944 also appears to be known as Temple mission.
Flavius, BE, 1943/1944: FN Bib Red.
Fleckney, DE, 1944/1945: establishment of an organizer for sabotage in Breslau region.
Floodlight, IT, 1944/1945: political-military liaison mission consisting of Major W O Churchill, to act as British Liaison Officer to General Cadorna at the request of the CLNAI in northern Italy.
Fordwick, DE, 1944: establishment line for agents and information between Germany and Denmark.
Fortinbras, BE, 1943: FN Bracelet.
Foxley, DE, 1944/1945: plan to assassinate Adolf Hitler pressed by SOE and supported by Duff Cooper a full implementation and intelligence report was drawn up but was not taken forward Hitler’s military strategy and decisions favored the Allies and there was no desire to create a martyr cult, however, plans to deal was Hitler’s subordinates, including Goebbels, found favor but were not implemented (Operation Little Foxley).
Frilford, DE, 1944/1945: sabotage railway track Hintshingen to Oberlauchringen.

Gambling, NL, 1945: Jedburgh Team to Veluwe region.
Gela Blue, IT, 1944/1945: political-military liaison mission to partisans in Vittorio Veneto.
Genesse, IT, 1945: military-political liaison mission to Oltre-Po, Pavese, and partisans of Ligurian zone.
Gibbon, BE, 1942/1944: PWE mission, organization of carrier pigeon communication systems.
Glamis, BE, Apr 1944: FN Josephine, Huy, Andenne region, adjunct to Hotton sabotage group.
Gratiano, BE, Jan 1944: FN Ping Pong, W/T operator for Samoyede II, based Bruxelles.
Greenleaves, AU, Apr 2, 1945: group based at Klagenfurt.
Greyhound, BE, 1942/1945: organization of escape routes through France to Spain (also known as Woodchuck & Antoine.
Griffon, BE, Feb 1943: FN Genon, sent in with W/T mission Badger to Huy region; 2me Bureau agent sent to liaise with secret armies, eventually captured and sent to Dachau.
Guineapig, BE, Oct 1943: FN Wig, with Flaminius.
Gypsy, BE, Sep 1941: to organize reception committees, Vermillion courier routes.

Hail, IT : led by Petrucci, shot by the SS in Mar 1944.
Hamster, AU, Apr 21, 1945: arming small resistance groups for attacks road-rail Klagenfurt.
Hangman, FR, 1942: sabotage of pylons.
Hapale, IT, 1945: political-military liaison mission, partisans Southe Piedmont; signals investigation mission.
Hapeville, IT, 1945: liaison mission to the partisans at Bergamasco.
Haras, AU, Jul 30, 1945: to join Communist underground Innsbruck, establish radio links.
Harrisburg, IT, 1945: political-military liaison mission to partisans.
Hecate, BE, mid-1944: W/T mission to Huguette group, Bruxelles.
Hector, BE, Hector 2 captured.
Helenus, BE, AU 1944: FN Jeannine, Bruxelles, sabotage instructor for Nola.
Herring, IT, Apr 1945: small parties of Italian dropped, harass-disorganize transport routes.
Herrington, IT, 1945: political-military liaison mission, North Lombardy, partisans Bergamasco.
Hillcat, BE, AU 1943: sent with Tybalt, W/T mission to Hector group.
Hireling, BE, Sep 1941: arrested shortly after landing, escape, an investigation by MI5.
Historian, AU, Apr 24, 1945: attack against communication lines Klagenfur.
Hollowshoes, SP, 1942/1945: building up of a network by Emilio Varas Canal. The group took its name from the latter’s girlfriend who proved her ability to create hollow heeled footwear.
Hommestad, IT, 1945: political-military liaison mission, North Lombardy.
Horatio, BE, Jan 1944: FN Glove, Bruxelles, W/T mission for Hector II & Nelly, arrested May 1944.
Hortensius, BE, Jan 1944: FN Valentine, sabotage waterways, Wanneberg-Bruxelles region, arrested in Apr 1944.
Housekeeper, FR, 1943: sabotage of canal lock at Lesdains.

Iachino, BE, 1944: FN Noemie, to contact resistance groups of MNB.
Iago, BE, Jan 1944: FN Scipio, provision of counter scorch organization in Antwerp; investigation of security of Hector organization under recent arrests.
Imogen, BE, Jul/Aug 1944: FN Alice, courier for Odette.
Incisor, IT, 1945: political-military liaison mission to the Val d’Aosta area.
Incomparable, BE, Mar 1942: PID propaganda mission, to contact and obtain influence in sabotage organization.
Indelible, IT, 1945: military-political liaison mission, partisans in COTULLA Savona province.
Independence, BE, Apr 1941: via Gibraltar; to contact any existing organizations and assess progress, advise on needs.
Insulin, IT, Mar 1945: political-military liaison mission, Piacentina area.
Intersection, BE, Jan 1942: captured shortly afterward, investigation on use by Germans and possible arrest of other agents.
Izarra, IT, proposed exfiltation of General Gustvo Pesenti.

Jerboa, BE, Apr 1943: Ghent, Sûreté mission, limit industrial production, sabotage of waterways.
Junius, BE, May/Jun 1944: FN Parasol, W/T mission, possibly arrested.

Koala, BE, Jun 1942: to stimulate a go-slow action to Beringen coal mines to reduce output, also to prepare sabotage on railways and Albert canal.
Kuyper, NL, Oct 1944: Lieutenant Dubois of Dutch army sent to organize reception committee and locate evading service personnel. Captured.

Labrador, BE, Jan 1943: 2d mission to organize reception committees; later doubts as to security.
Lacquer, BE, Sep 1941: sent to liaise with Conjugal organization.
Lamb, BE, April/May 1942: W/T mission, to the secret army.
Lavinia, BE, March/April 1944: FN Victorine, org. mission, sabotage river traffic, and locks.
Lear, BE, Aug 1943: to assist Stanley mission in cooperation with the secret army.
Lemur, BE, Nov 1942: British officer sent to try to resolve current impasse to organize reception committees, Ghent region.
Lepidus, BE, May 1944: FN Waltz, W/T mission with Huguette, eventually captured.
Leyton, IT, Jul 1944: block enemy transport and the communications coast road, Fano to Pesaro.
Ligarius, BE, Jun 1944: FN Margot, liaison with Delphine, sabotage training; arrested Jul 1944.
Lodovico, BE, May 1944: Namur region, FN Rosalie, sabotage instruction mission.
Lucullus, BE, Jan 1944: FN Gauntlet, Nivelles.
Luculluss, BE, Mar 1944: FN Jeanette, shot down.
Lynx, BE, Jun 1942: Neufchateau area.

M-11, IT, 1945: political-military liaison mission, Asti and Piedmont (existed under different leadership before this date).
M 12/Tiber, IT, 1945: political-military liaison mission; a sparse file suggests activity in Liguria and Genoa.
M 6, IT, 1944/1945: political-military liaison mission in Biella area.
Macduff, BE, May 1943: with Ibex and Seal, to find reception committees for Civer, to act as an adjunct to mission Stanley.
Majordomo, BE, Jan 1942: with Mandamus, reports on arrests, including Laquer agents.
Mallaby/Neck, IT, 1943: with the second mission in 1945, the first W/T mission dropped by parachute to Lake Como, but was captured on landing. The agent, Richard Mallaby, also known as Olaf and Richard Tucker, provided a W/T link during the final surrender of the Axis forces in Italy after being captured during his second mission.
Man Friday, BE, Jan 1942: contact existing secret org. collect political, propaganda information.
Mandamus, BE, Jan 1942: organize sabotage passive resistance arms dumps, crashed after take-off.
Mandrill, BE, 1943: PID mission to contact Cordier mission for the demoralization of German support, reception of propaganda, Liège, Bruxelles, Ghent.
Manelaus, BE, Oct 1943: liaison mission to the chief of zone 1, FN Berthe.
Marcius, BE, Feb/Mar 1943: FN Necklace, W/T support to chief Osric; presumed arrested.
Mardian, BE, Jul 1944: FN Mathilde, to work with Celeste.
Market, NL, Sep 1944: liaison missions for Arnhem operations, Edward, provision of W/T contacts with England during airborne operation Claude, Market Garden. The four Jedburgh Teams were Edward, Claude, Clarence, and Daniel.
Marmoset/Daniel, BE, Jan 1942: sabotage organization for Periwig.
Marmot, BE, Sep 1942: support to existing sabotage movement in Mons, Scheldt region.
Mastiff, BE, Mar 1942: W/T mission with Incomparable.
Menas, BE, Aug 1944: FN Eugénie, to contact Samoyède II and Stentor organization.
Mencrates, BE, Apr/May 1944: FN Hortense, sabotage mission to Nelly.
Menenius, BE, Aug 1944: FN Simone, org. reception committees; too late to fulfill mission.
Messala, BE, Jun 1944: to regain direction in field of railway dislocation, replace Nelly and organize sabotage structure, FN Huguette
Mink, BE, 1942: chief steward in the Belgian merchant navy, escaping to form sabotage organization in Anvers region and await W/T.
Mongoose, BE, Jun 1942: to contact secret armies, arrange reception committees; established but no reports received.
Montano, BE, Mar 1944: reports on group G activities, investigation of Yapok, Fabius and Hector II missions, creation of PWE structure and sabotage central Bruxelles.
Moselle, IT 1943-1945: wireless operation, agent captured in Sardinia and Avocat possibly played back against SOE.
Mouse, BE, Mar 1942: drops unoccupied France, arrested shortly after landing.
Mule, BE, Apr/May 1942: Free French recruit, to organize transport and sabotage in Anvers.
Musjid, BE, Sep/Oct 1941: contact organizations in the east and west Flanders, creation of reception and sabotage organizations, organizer Aboretum, to be dispatched.

Newsagent, BE, May 1943: with W/T operator Vampire, to organize reception committees and sabotage groups in Anvers and Limburg.
Nicanor, BE, Jan/Feb 1943: FN Therese, support to chief Belgian organizers.

Oderigo, BE, May 1944: FN Paulette, sabotage instruction to Nelly organization, Lessines region.
Opinion, BE, 1941: cultivate contacts in ecclesiastical circles, including the king’s entourage.
Othello, BE, Jun 1943: mission to organize agricultural resistance, develop clandestine press, and the encouragement of the sale of products directly to the population, thus undermining occupation controls.
Outcast, BE, Sep/Oct 1941: to work also into Luxembourg to contact existing groups or set up new ones, plan sabotage of power stations, industrial targets.
Outhal, BE, set for Jun 1941: canceled, little information as to purpose in available file.

Pandarus, BE, Mar 1944: FN Cufflinks; supply 90.000 USD to secret army and aid building up to the wireless network.
Panicle, PT, 1941: planning for delay of any enemy advance into Portugal.
Patroclus, BE, Apr/May 1944: with Velutus and Publius, FN Bracelet, works to Osric, Bruxelles, but arrested in Jun 1944.
Patron, BE, 1944: proposed exfiltration of Prince Charles of Belgium, brother of the King; no progress by Aug 1944.
Periwig, BE, 1941: sabotage mission, captured by Gestapo (few details in the file).
Periwig, SP, 1944/1945: a plan for the planting of evidence on captured Germans (who would presumably be allowed to escape) which would lead to the belief that the real German underground resistance movement was being organized from Britain. There is no evidence in the file to suggest that it went ahead.
Philotus, BE, Aug 1943: establishment of an organization for reception and distribution of propaganda, attacks against pro-Fascists, and obstruction of work of collaborators.
Phrynia, BE, Aug 1944: FN Liliane, to Osric, communications, information, and reconnaissance for the chief of the area.
Pilchard, FR, sabotage of Matisse works, Versailles, and Brewer Radio Paris at Allouis.
Platypus, BE, Aug 1942: with Man Friday, mission with Belgian Surété & PWE to influence Belgian industry towards go-slow tactics, collection economic data; status mission questioned by ‘C’.
Pointer, BE, Jul 1943: with Claudius, later W/T to Claudius, contact with escape organizations; but questions over contact with German agents.
Polonius,BE, Jan 1944: FN Belt, to Tybalt, north of Nivelles.
Pompey, Spanish section plan for deception to suggest that the Allies intended to attack southern France or Greek islands.
Pool I and II, IT, May 1944: Pool I was a landing on Elba near Capo San Andrea, with Pool II being the exfiltration of agents from the same place.
Potato, IT, the sabotage railway line from Siena to Empoli and subsidiary roads, Jun/Jul 1944.
Priam, BE, May/Jun 1944: FN Hubertine, sabotage instruction mission.
Publius, BE, Apr/May 1944: FN Muff, W/T mission to Colette.
Pyx, AU, Jun 13, 1945: Klagenfurt to Vienna; for creation of safe houses, contact with the resistance locally, sabotage organization; delay imposed by partisans and capture of information; eventually return of the party to Bari.

Rankin, Codeword for planning operation in event German withdrawal from occupied countries.
Rat/Goat, BE, Apr 1943: organization of courier line for escapees and mail.
Regan, BE, Feb 1944: FN Lining, W/T mission to Scipio.
Relator, SP, 1941/1943: name was given to the training of a party of area commanders to be used in Spain; also appear to be known as Ali Baba and the 20 thieves. Their purpose was to delay the enemy in any advance into Spain.
Reproach, SP, 1941/1943: general name for attempts to build up support among Spanish traditionalists in the event of an invasion of Spain, in the Navarre area.
Reynaldo, BE, Aug 1944: FN Gabrielle, to contact the chief of the secret army.
Rhombold, BE, Oct 1941: Chevron area, W/T, and sabotage.
Ricco, IT, 1944/1945: political-military mission to partisans; road party in the La Spezia area.
Rosencrantz, BE, Sep 1944: W/T mission, overtaken by Allied advance.
Rudder, IT, codename for telegrams received from Rome through a code especially infiltrated immediately after the armistice.Ruina, IT, 1944/1945: political-military liaison mission to partisans, west Veneto. The file contains a detailed sabotage diary.
Rummy, NL, mid-1944, to contact underground movements and report on security aspects after recent German successes against the circuits.

Sable, BE, Apr/May 1942: east of Blois, to establish sabotage group near Anvers, part of the mission known as ‘the Toughs’, to disorganize transport, railways, communications.
Sainfoin, FR, Sep 1944: Pontarlier region, working behind enemy lines in advance of Allies.
Saki, IT, 1944/1945: political-military liaison mission Liguria region.
Samoyede, BE, May 1943: PID mission, for pre/post-liberation work, jamming of German wireless installations, the aim of helping Allies from D-Day in use of the press, cinema, and radio.
Savanna, FR, 1941: sabotage Vannes aerodrome, transformer Josephine B substation at Pessac.
Scullion, FR, Apr 19, 1943: independent French mission to sabotage Les Telots shale oil refinery.
Seafront, AU, Oct 12, 1944: establishment of a safe route to Salzburg and encouragement of resistance in Salzburg; dropped to Germany by mistake.
Sempronius, BE, Feb/Mar 1944: FN, assistance to the chief of sabotage, organization of reception of material, using business cover; no reports received from the mission in surviving file.
Siamang, IT, Val Maria area, helping to coordinate anti-scorch measures to protect hydroelectric plants in the region.
Silkmerchant, BE, May 1941: organization of passive resistance through liberal and social parties, eventually leading to sabotage.
Sling, FR, 1944: attack on Paris electricity supplies by the systematic destruction of pylons on three main lines; successful.
Socrates, BE, 1943/1944: to organize financial aid to resistance organizations.
Sophie, FR, Jun 1943: dispatch of assistant to de Gaulle’s commissaire for France.

Temple, AU, Aug 13, 1945: establishment of contacts in the frontier area; fate unknown.
Terrier, BE, Mar 1942: Rochefort area, W/T mission suspicions of possible the use of W/T sets by the enemy.
Tiddleywinks, NL, Aug 1944: to re-establish propaganda links, send messages to the underground press on behalf of the Queen; agent injured on landing.
Turdus, IT, 1944: Lunese area, political-military liaison mission to partisans.
Tybalt, BE, 1942/1944: organizational mission to contact resistance Claudius groups, secret armies, and FIL, the largest subgroup in Belgium, and bring these within SOE coordination.

Union, FR, Jan 1944: to investigate Maquis strength, Savone region.

Varro, BE, 1944: FN Delphine, a mission to investigate arrests in Tybalt organization.
Vergillia, BE, Feb 1944: FN Nelly, chief sabotage organization working to the chief of staff, SOE and Belgian Sûreté, with the aim of dislocating rail and road transportation on D-Day.
Vivacious, DE, 1944/1945: agent (2/Lt Baker Byrne) sent to sabotage the Bruno Hintze precision engineering works in Berlin, active in the production of V2 rocket components. Not successful, but agent managed to return to Britain.

Warden, SP, 1941: plan for the sabotage of eight enemy ships in Las Palmas harbor; no evidence that this was carried out.

Yapok, BE, Feb 1944: with Montano and Volumnia missions, FN Shoelace; arrested but escaped.

SOE – Special Operations Executive was a British World War II organization. It was officially formed on July 22, 1940, under Minister of Economic Warfare Hugh Dalton, from the amalgamation of three existing secret organizations. Its purpose was to conduct espionage, sabotage, and reconnaissance in occupied Europe and later, also in occupied Southeast Asia against the Axis powers, and to aid local resistance movements.

Few people were aware of SOE’s existence. Those who were part of it or liaised with it were sometimes referred to as the “Baker Street Irregulars”, after the location of its London headquarters. It was also known as “Churchill’s Secret Army” or the “Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare”. Its various branches, and sometimes the organization as a whole, were concealed for security purposes behind names such as the “Joint Technical Board” or the “Inter-Service Research Bureau”, or fictitious branches of the Air Ministry, Admiralty, or War Office.

SOE operated in all territories occupied or attacked by the Axis forces, except where demarcation lines were agreed with Britain’s principal Allies (the United States and the Soviet Union). It also made use of neutral territory on occasion or made plans and preparations in case neutral countries were attacked by the Axis. The organization directly employed or controlled more than 13.000 people, about 3.200 of whom were women.

SOE Known Agents

Alf Aakre, 1917-1988, Member of the “Aakre Gang.” Participated in Operation Carhampton.
Adie Elizabeth Lorraine, British, 1916–2013, Married American OSS agent Miles Copeland, Jr.
Agazarian Francine, British, 1913–1998, Courier. Landed in France by aircraft in March 1943. Wife of
Agazarian Jack, British, 1916–1945, KIA 1945.
Aisnier Juliane, French, 1919–1947.
Alexandre Roland, 1921–1944.
Allard Elisée, 1916-1944.
Amir Rehavam, 1916–2013.
Amphlett Phillip, 1921–1945.
Amps James, 1908–1945, Had a French wife, after easing out of circuit was implicated in documents found in 1943 when other agents arrested.
Antelme France, Mauritian, 1900–1945.
Arnault Claude, -.

Baden-Powell Dorothy, 1920–2008.
Baissac Claude de, Mautritian, 1907–1974, brother of Lisé de Baissac, of husband Mary K. Herbert.
Baissac Lisé de, Mauritian, 1905–2004, sister of SOE Agent Claude de Baissac.
Balmaceda Giliana, 1st female SOE to be sent to occupied France (May 1941).
Barclay Madeleine, French, 1911–1943, KIA aboard HMS Fidelity.
Barrett John, 1916–1944, KIA.
Barrett Eric, Force 136, British, 1910–1975.
Baseden, Yvonne Jeanne de Vibraye, British, 1922–2017.
Beauregard Alcide, Canadian, 1917–1944, KIA.
Bec Francis Eugene Bec, 1905–1944, KIA.
Beckinsale Stanley, British, 1920–2004.
Beekman Yolande, Swiss, 1911–1944, (Mariette Kilt) Executed at Dachau.
Bégué Georges, French, 1911–1993.
Bell Herbert John, British, 1919–2001.
Benoist Robert, French, 1895–1944, KIA.
Bennett Kem, 1919–1986.
Bertheau Louis, French, 1919–1945, KIA.
Bièler Gustave Guy, Canadian, 1904–1944, KIA.
Bierer Emanuel, 1884–0000.
Bierer Helen, 1885–0000, (Helen Anna Agate Thormann-Bierer).
Bloch André, 1914–1942, KIA.
Bloch Denise Madeleine, 1916–1945, Executed at Ravensbrück.
Bloom Marcus, British, 1907–1944, Executed at Mauthausen.
Blundell Bridget, 0000–1999.
Bodington Nicholas, British, 1904–1974.
Borrel Andrée, French, 1919–1944, (Monique, Denise Urbain) Executed at Natzweiler-Struthof.
Bouguennec Jean, 1912–1944, KIA.
Brooks Tony, British, 1922–2007.
Brown Basil Capt, 1918–1970.
Bruhn Carl Johan, Danish, 1904-1941, KIA.
Bublik Joséf
Buckmaster Maurice, British, 1902–1992.
Burney Christopher, British, 1917–1980.
Burley Norman, (Noel Fernand Rauol Burdeyron).
Butt Sonya, British, 1924–2014, (Married fellow SOE agent Guy D’Artois).
Byck Muriel, British, 1918–1944, Died in service of meningitis at Romorantin Hospital.
Byerly Robert Bennett, 1916–1944.

Cauchi Eric, 1917–1944, KIA.
Cammaerts Francis, British, 1916–2006.
Chalk William John, 1899–0000.
Chapman Robert Arthur, 1901–0000.
Charlet Valentine Blanche, British, 1898–1985.
Chassé Pierre, Canadian, 1923–1988.
Chêne Marie Thérèse Le, French.
Christie Arthur, British, 1921–2003.
Christensen Kjeld Toft, Danish, 1910–1945, (Suicide on Nov 27 1945).
Churchill Oliver Maj, British, 1914–1997, Brothers Capt Walter Churchill, Capt Peter Churchill.
Churchill Peter Capt, British, 1909–1972, Major Oliver Churchill.
Clech Marcel, 1905–1944.
Clément Georges, 1917–1944, KIA.
Coleman Jean, British, 1908–1982.
Cooper Adolphus Richard, 1899–0000.
Coppin Ted, 1915–1943, KIA.
Cormeau Yvonne, British, 1909–1997, (Annette, Fairy, Sarafari).
Cornioley Henri, British, 1914–2008, (Husband of Pearl Witherington).
Coward Noël, British, 1899–1972.
Cowburn Benjamin, British, 1909–1994.
Christensen Jørgen Robert, Danish, 1921–2004.
Croft Andrew, British, 1906–1998.
Cumberlege Mike, Force 133, British, 1905–1945, (Tortured to dead).

Damerment Madeleine, French, 1917–1944, (Executed at Dachau).
D’Artois Guy, Canadian, 1917–1999.
Davies Jimmy, British, 1913–1940, KIA.
Defence Marcel, 1920–1944, KIA.
Defendini Ange, 1909–1944, KIA.
Demand George, British, 1921–1944, KIA.
Delmeire Alphonse, Belgian, 1919–1944, KIA.
Deniset Francois Adolphe, 1917–1944, KIA.
Dericourt Henri, French, 1909–1962, (Possibly a double agent).
Desmet Freddi, Dutch, 1912–1946, (Christiaan Lindemans).
Detal Julien, 0000–1944, KIA.
Devereux-Rochester Elizabeth, British, 1917–1983, (Typist, Fany).
Diacono Henri.
Dodds-Parker Douglas, British, 1909–2006.
Dodson Derek.
Donati Leo, Italian, 1919–1972.
Dowlen Roland, 1907–1945, KIA.
Dormer Hugh, British, 1919–1944, (KIA serving with Irish Guards Aug 1944).
Dubois André, 1906–1944, KIA.
Duboudin Emile, 1907–1945, KIA.
Duclos Gustave, French, 1916–2002.
Duclos Phillip, 1923–1944, KIA.
D’Unienville Alix, Mauritian, 1919–0000.
Duffy Gavan Bernard, British, 1916–1990.
Dumais Lucien, Canadian.
Dourlein Pieter, Dutch, Captured, Escaped back to UK and survived war.

Espedal Alf, Norwegian, 1914–1969.
Everson Reginald Harold, 1923–1990, (Francois Michelle William Reeve).

Falla Albert George, Guernsey, 1918–1997.
Felangue Eugene, 1912–1945, KIA.
Fermor Patrick Leigh, British, 1915–2011.
Finlayson David, 1923–1944. KIA
Fontaine Yvonne, French, 1913–1996.
Florent Marcel Georges, French, 1910–1945, Codename Georges, Ernest, Executed at Flossenbürg.
Frager Henri, French, 1897–1944, KIA.
Francou Louis, Belgian, (Bullfrog).

Gaillot Henri, Belgian, 1896–1944, KIA, (aka Ignace or Guillaume).
Gaiswinkler Albrecht, Austrian, 1905–1979.
Gamwell Harry, British, 1912–1998.
Garry Emile, 1909–1944, KIA.
Geelen P A H, 1916–1944, KIA.
Geisler Ole, Danish, 1913–1948.
Gerson Victor, British, 1896–0000.
Goffin Paul, Belgian, 1915–1967, (aka Gofer).
Goldsmith John G., British, 1909–1972.
Goodman Malby E. G., British, 1917–2015.
Graham Harry, 1910–1945, KIA.
Grandclément André, French, 1908–1944, Arrested and Executed as a double agent.
Granville Christine, Polish, 1908-1952 (aka Maria Krystyna Janina Skarbek).
Granlund Sverre, Norwegian, 1918–1943, KIA.
Grover-Williams William, British, 1903–1945, KIA.
Guerne Armel, 1911–1980.
Guillemet René Dumont.

Hall Virginia, American, 1906–1982.
Hallowes Odette, British, 1912–1995, (aka Sansom and Churchill (marriage).
Hamilton John, 1907–1944, KIA.
Hammer Mogens, Danish, 1911-1946.
Hayes John Beresford Jack, British, 1904–0000.
Hayes Victor, 1908–1944, KIA.
Hemmings Mary, 1914–0000.
Herbert Mary Katherine, Irish, 1903–1983, (1st WAAF Officer to join SOE).
Heslop Richard Harry, British, 1907–1970.
Hewitt Richard, British, 1917–1994.
Hill Harry, British.
Hiller George, British, 1916–1972.
Holst Wilhelm, Norwegian, 1895–1949.
Homet Marcel, 1897–0000.
Hubble Desmond Ellis, British, 1910–1944, Executed at Buchenwald.
Hudson Bill, British, 1910-1995.
Hudson Harry, British, 1924-2012.
Hue André, Anglo-French, 1923–2005.
Hymans Max, French, 1900–1961.

Irwin Captain Basil.

Johannesen Ingolf, Norwegian, 1915–1998.
Johnsen Peter.
Jones Sydney, 1902–1944.
Jullian Ginette, French, 1917–1962.
Jumeau Clement, 1914–1944, KIA.
Jung Douglas, Force 136, Canadian, 1924–2002.

Noor Inyat Khan, Indian/American, 1914–1944, Executed at Dachau.
Kowerski Andrzej, Polish, 1912–1988, (aka Andrew Kennedy).
Knowles Mary, 1917–2003, (aka Christine)
Knight Marguerite, British, 1920–2004, (aka Nicole).
Kemp Peter, Force 136, British, 1913–1993.

Labelle Paul Emile, Canadian, 1916–0000, (aka Nartex).
LaBrosse Raymond, Canadian, 1920–1986.
Lafaye Max, French, 1912–1986, (Deported Buchenwald, Dora, Bergen-Belsen).
Landsdell A. R.
Larcher Maurice Louis Marie Aristide, Mauritian, 1922-1944, KIA.
Larose James.
Larsen Leif, Norwegian, 1906–1990.
Latour Phyllis, British (South African-born), 1921–0000.
Lauwers Huub, Dutch, 1915–2004, Captured, held at numerous Nazi KL.
Lavigne Madeleine, French, 1912–1945, (aka Isabelle, Madeleine Latour).
Leccia Marcel Mathieu René, French, 1911-1944, (aka Baudouin, Georges Louis) KIA.
Ledoux Jacques Paul Henri.
Lee Christopher, British, 1922–2015.
Lee Lionel.
Lees Mike, British, 1922-1993.
Lefort Cecily, British, 1900–1945, Executed in Ravensbrück.
Leigh Vera, British, 1903–1944, Executed in Natzweiler-Struthof.
Lepage M. A.
Lesout E.
Letac Joël, French, 1918–2005, Deported to Dora and Bergen-Belsen.
Lippmann Ole, Danish, 1916–2002.
Lord Christopher, British, 0000–1943, KIA.
Longe Desmond Maj, French, (aka Refraction).

Nearne Jacqueline, MBE, (May 27, 1916 – Aug 15, 1982) (Sister, Eileen Nearne SOE).

Madden Elaine, British, 1923–2012.
Maingard Amédée, Mauritian, 1918–1981.
Manus Max, Norwegian, 1914–1996.
Malraux Claude Raymond, French, 1920-1944, (aka Cicerio) Executed in Gross-Rosen).
Maugenet Andre Adrian Jules, (aka Comte Jacques-Arthus Marc de Montalembert).
Miller Ernest.
Maxwell Gavin, British, 1914–1969.
Mayer James Andrew, Mauritian.
Mennesson James Francis George.
Michel Francois Gerard.
George Millar, British, 1910–2005.
McBain G. B.
Macalister John Kenneth, Canadian, 1914–1944, KIA.
Makowski S.
Mathieu R. M. A.
Moss W. Stanley, Force 133, Forde 136, British, 1921–1965.
Mulsant Pierre Louis.
Muus Flemming, Danish, 1907–1982, SOE parachute commander 1943/1945.
Macklin-Sprake Buntie Aurelle Neredah, British, 1919–2010, (Married Arie Van Duyn).

Nearne Eileen Mary Didi, British, 1921–2010, (sister SOE Jacqueline & Francis Nearne).
Nearne Francis, British.
Nearne Jacqueline, British, 1916–1982.
Newman Isidore, British, 1916–1944, Captured, Executed at Mauthausen.
Newton Alfred.
Newton Henry.
Norman Gilbert, British, 1914–1944, KIA.

Olschanezky Sonia, French, 1923-1944, Captured, Executed at Natzweiler-Struthof.
O’Sullivan Maureen Patricia Paddy, Irish, 1918-1994.

Pardi Paul Baptiste, French, 1920-1944, KIA.
Parker George Wyndham, British, 1913–1992.
Pedersen Alv Kristian, Norwegian, 1908–1982.
Pertschuk Maurice, French, 1921–1945, Executed in Buchenwald.
Pertschuk Peter, French, 1923–1995, (brother of Maurice Pertschuk).
Peulevé Harry, British, 1916–1963.
Pickersgill Frank, Canadian, 1915–1944, KIA.
Pinder Richard Francis, British, 1913–1981, Deported.
Plewman Eliane Sophie, British, 1917–1944, (aka Gaby, Dean, Madame Dupont) Executed in Dachau.

Quayle Anthony, British, 1913–1989.

Rabinovitch Adolphe, 1918–1944, Captured, Executed at Gross-Rosen.
Roe Herbert Maurice, Force 136, British, 1917–2014.
Rabinovich Alex .
Rafferty Brian Dominic.
Rake Denis, British, 1901–1976.
Rechenmann Charles.
Rée Harry Alfred, British, 1914–1991 (aka César).
Reik Haviva, Slovakian, 1914–1944, KIA.
Renaut Jean, Belgian.
Renaud-Dandicolle Jean.
Robertson Anne, 1920–0000.
Rolfe Lilian, British, 1914–1945, Executed at Ravensbrück.
Rootham Jasper, British, 1910–1990.
Rowden Diana, British, 1915–1944, Executed in Natzweiler-Struthof.
Rudelatt Yvonne, French, 1897–1945, (Captured, Died, typhus at Bergen-Belsen).
Rottbøll Christian Michael, Danish, 1917-1942, KIA.

Sabourin Roméo, Canadian, 1923–1944, KIA.
St.John Anthony P. B., British, 1925–1990.
Sarrette Paul F.M.
Schwatschko Alexandre .
Sereni Enzo, Italian, 1905–1944, KIA.
Sevenet Henri P.
Selby John B., British, 1915–1991.
Sinclair Jack Andrew Eugene Marcel.
Simon Jean Alexandre Robert.
Simon Octave Anne Guillaume.
Skarbek Krystyna, Polish, 1915–1952, (aka Christine Granville).
Skelly Brian, 1920–2001.
Skepper Charles, British, 1905–1944, KIA.
Skinnarland Einar, Norwegian, 1918–2002.
Sønsteby Gunnar, Norwegian, 1918–2012.
Soskice V.A.
Southgate Maurice, British, 1913–1990.
Spencer James William, British, 1915–1997.
Spencer Geoffrey, British, 1920–2015.
St Genies M.J.G. de.
Staggs Arthur.
Starr George Reginald, British, 1904–1980, (brother of John Renshaw Starr).
Starr John Renshaw, British, 0000–1996, (brother of George Reginald Starr).
Steele Arthur.
Stonehouse Brian, British, 1918–1998.
Suttill Francis, British, 1910–1945, KIA.
Szabo Violette, British, 1921–1945, (aka Louise) Executed.
Szenes Hannah, Hungarian, 1921–1944, KIA.

Tambour Madeleine, French, 1908-1945, Executed in Ravensbrück, (sister Germaine was gazed).
Taschereau Jacques.
Tessier Paul Raymond, British, 1916–1944, KIA.
Thibeault Paul-Émile.
Trotobas Michael.

Ullman Paul L.

Vaillant de Guélis Jacques, French, 1907–1945, DOW May 1945 in UK.
Vallée François.
Vomécourt Philippe de.
Vomécourt Pierre de.
Værum Arne, Norwegian, 1919–1942, KIA Telavåg, Norway.
Van Duyn Arie, Dutch, (Married Buntie Macklin-Sprake).

Wake Nancy, New Zealand, 1912–2011, (aka Helene British, Andrée (French), White Mouse.
Watkins Winifred, British, 1916–0000, (aka Betty)
Walters Anne-Marie, British, 1923–1998, (aka Colette).
Wand-Tetley Peter.
Whytehead Sibrée David.
Wilen Odette.
Wilkinson E.M.
Wilkinson John Prentice, 1-SF, British, 1915–1945, KIA.
Wilkinson George Alfred Teddy.
Wimille Jean-Pierre, French, 1908–1949.
Witherington Pearl, British, 1914–2008.
Worms Jean.
Witherspoon Dagmar, British, 1922–2011.

Yeo-Thomas F.F.E., British, 1902–1964 (aka White Rabbit).
Young John, British, Captured 1943.
Young William Henry, British, 1923-1996.
Young John Cuthbert.
Zaehner Robert Charles, British, 1913–1974.
Zembsch-Schreve Guido, Dutch, 1916–2003.

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (Nov 30, 1874 – Jan 24, 1965), the creator od the SOE, was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament. Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party.

Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. He joined the British Army in 1895, and saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900, initially as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In HH Asquith’s Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers’ social security.

During the WW-1, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign; after it proved a disaster, he resigned from the government and served in the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front. In 1917, he returned to the government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, then as Secretary of State for War and Air, and finally for the Colonies, overseeing the Anglo-Irish Treaty and Britain’s Middle East policy.

Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of WW-2, he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1940 he became prime minister, replacing Neville Chamberlain. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945.

His wartime leadership was widely praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy. After the Conservatives’ defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an iron curtain of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup.

Domestically his government emphasized house-building and developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral.

Widely considered one of the 20th century’s most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in Britain and throughout the West, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending Europe’s liberal democracy from the spread of fascism.

Praised as a social reformer and accomplished writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.

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